In this latest report (published on 9 April 2019), Hepatitis C in England 2019, Public Health England summarises the current data and the impact of action plans in England to drive down mortality from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and to reduce the number of new infections. Also included is an outline the actions required to make further progress. It is clear that progress is being made, but there is still much to do.

This post provides a summary of the key points relative to the levels of activity ongoing through the prison estate in England.

Latest modelled estimates suggest that around 143,000 people in England were living with chronic HCV infection in 2015. Prevalence is estimated to have fallen in recent years, and was predicted to decline to 113,000 in 2018 with the advent of new treatments. HCV affects a larger proportion of people in prison and other detention centres than the wider population, principally as a result of the relatively higher levels of injecting drug use that are observed among this population.

Partnership Working – HMPPS, NHSE and PHE.

Since 2013/14, PHE in partnership with NHS England and Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service (HMPPS) have overseen the rollout of BBV testing in adult prisons on an ‘opt-out’ basis. A significant milestone was reached in April 2018, when after more than 4 years of implementation, the programme was successfully rolled out across the entire adult prison estate.

Testing and Diagnosis.

Opt-out bloodborne virus (BBV) testing is now fully implemented across the prison estate, and among new receptions to English prisons, levels of testing have risen from 5% in 2010/11 to 19% in 2017/18. In the 2017/18 financial year, Health and Justice Indicators of Performance (HJIP) testing data suggest that, after excluding previously confirmed cases, 75% of new receptions and transfers were offered HCV testing, 26% were tested, 11% of those tested were found anti-HCV positive but less than half (46%) went on to have HCV Ribonucleic acid (RNA) testing. About 40% of those testing positive for HCV RNA received specialist referrals for their HCV infection.


Overall, these data suggest an increasing awareness of HCV in prisons with significant increases in testing, including Dried blood spot (DBS) testing. Whilst testing volumes remain sub-optimal, work is ongoing to move from the implementation of BBV testing to improving the quality of the offer and uptake of testing within prisons.

HJIP Metrics.

Prison Health Performance and Quality Indicators and HJIPs have shown a rise in HCV tests performed, from 5.3% in 2010/11 to 19.4% in 2017/18. It is likely that the recent increase in testing of people in prisons is due to the introduction of BBV opt-out testing, which was agreed in October 2013 by PHE, NHS England and HMPPS and is now fully implemented across the prison estate. While this increase in testing is welcomed, current levels are still below the lower BBV testing threshold proposed by NHS England (50-74%), and well below the target threshold of at least 75% uptake.

Performance in relation to the BBV opt-out testing programme is measured at the prison level by NHS England through the collection of data via HJIPs. These metrics include specific reports on:

  • the number of BBV tests offered within 72 hours of reception,
  • the number of tests undertaken,
  • the number of people newly diagnosed,
  • the number of patients referred for specialist treatment following diagnosis,
  • the number who received treatment.

These data are used by NHS England commissioners to performance manage healthcare providers in prisons and are important for identifying potential attrition points in the testing pathway.

In the 2017/18 financial year, HJIP testing data suggest that, after excluding previously confirmed cases, 75% of new receptions and transfers were offered HCV testing and of these 26% were tested. Of those tested, 11% were positive and 46% of these went on to have HCV RNA testing.

The image with this post illustrates the Hepatitis C testing cascade in the English prison estate (112 prisons).

World Hepatitis Day is held on 28 July 2019.

Read the full report Here

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